Route object is an object created in Internet Routing Registry to specify the Autonomus System Number "ASN" that will propagate this exact IP prefix to Internet. It can also be used to give information about the organisation that advertises this prefix. Route objects are usually protected and only a person with the authorised password can change them.
Route objects are usually used by Internet Service Providers and Upstreams to validate that routes received from their peers are legitimate. This usually help eliminate routes hijacking if used by all providers. They don't eliminate the need for BGP configuration and advertisement.